Abma 1. Since , prevention of cervical cancer in the Netherlands consists of two measures: first, the Papanicolaou Screening Pap smear , for which all women aged 30 to 60 years receive an invitation every 5 years, is free of charge . The second measure – the Human Papillomavirus HPV vaccination – was introduced in , after the bivalent vaccine Cervarix targeting HPV 16 and 18 became available . Since there is a risk of contracting HPV from the first time of intercourse , the HPV vaccination program, which is managed by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control CIb and is only free of charge for year old girls , ensures that most girls can be vaccinated before they become sexually active . Participation in HPV vaccination and Pap smears is particularly low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands [1, 4], however, the morbidity of cervical cancer in the Netherlands is also low among ethnic minorities. According to a Dutch study, statistically significant lower numbers of cervical cancer related deaths were identified among ethnic minority women when compared to native Dutch women: 35 compared to cases, respectively . Some studies suggest this low risk may be due to having circumcised partners , among other reasons, male circumcision being a common practice in Islamic communities . The Somali community in the Netherlands, which is predominantly an Islamic community , is under studied in health research in general.
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Adam, 27 Amsterdam, Netherlands. Khadra, 26 Minneapolis, Somali States. Mahmoud, 28 Copenhagen, Denmark. Dating, 20 Copenhagen , Denmark. Hamza, 31 Leeds, United Kingdom. Yasmin, 24 Copenhagen , Denmark. Khalid, 31 Stockholm, Sweden. Hodon, 32 Birmingham, United Kingdom. Hassan, 31 London, Dating Kingdom. Samia, 29 San Diego, United States. Guled, 30 Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
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The Africa Portal is a research repository and an expert analysis hub on African affairs. Somalia is one of the post conflict societies in the horn of Africa. It has been and still characterized by conflicts occurring at inter-state, intra-state and inter-communal levels. For decades, Somali women have been caught in conflict as clans rise against each other or fight for political supremacy.
To date, many Somali women and children still live as refugees in neighboring countries such as Kenya and Yemen. One of the main consequences of these decades of conflict is sexual and gender-based violence that takes many forms: domestic violence, early and forced marriages, attempted rape, rape, sexual harassment, Female Genital Mutilation, discrimination and denial of access to resources including inheritance.
Research shows that women in Somalia have made progress economically over the last years, but their right to self-determination has been slow. Somali women continue to be marginalized in all aspects of decision-making and governance in Somalia. Women are few in the parliament and even fewer in the cabinet. Often women who are dismissed or are forced to resign are replaced by men.
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Literature on sexuality in Somalia has various focuses, from courtship, the motives behind FGM, extended singleness, marriage and the relationship between the sexes. It usually has a heterosexual focus, and norms surrounding sexuality can differ between each national depending on levels of religiosity, conservatism, location as well as other factors although a common Somali culture exists.
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Available in English. As part of a set of case studies shedding light on the role of women in peacebuilding, Faiza Jama’s article is taken from Accord issue 21 , focusing on Somalia. Excluded from the all-male arena of clan-based politics, women have directed their collective political acumen and agency into the civil society space that opened up after state collapse. Indeed some women would argue that Somali civil society organisations’ engagement in peace work did not start until women took a dedicated leadership role.
The article looks at how Somali women have influenced both indigenous and donor-sponsored peace efforts. Their position in the clan system enabled them to bridge clan divides and act as channels for dialogue. They also influenced elders to negotiate and mobilise resources for clan conferences. However, their participation in these conferences was limited to that of observers.